Fogged film (see figure 3-16) may be caused by:
a. Exposure of film to light during storage.
b. Leaving film unprotected (that is, outside the lead-lined box or in the x-ray room during operation of the x-ray machine).
c. Use of film that has been exposed to heat or chemical fumes.
d. Use of improperly mixed or contaminated developer.
e. Defective safelight.